The surgeon ensures that the animal is at a surgical plane of anesthesia by checking the palpebral, corneal and/or pedal reflexes (toe pinch) prior to beginning the surgical procedure. The surgical procedure(s) is (are) performed in accordance with the protocol for that procedure. Animals are monitored during surgery for the surgical plane of anesthesia by checking the reflexes noted above and respiration rate. The heart and mucous membranes (color, refill time) are also monitored Fluids, antibiotics, analgesics, vascular catheter heparin locks, and other treatments are administered as appropriate for the specific surgical procedure and any additional procedures required by a specific client.
Internal sutures for ligation of vessels, ducts or other structures uses 3-0 to 5-0 approved suture materials. If the surgery required opening a major body cavity, the body cavity (e.g., abdominal laparotomy), layer and subcutaneous tissues may be closed separately with 3-0 approved suture material. The skin is closed with approved wound clips or approved suture material. The surgical site is cleansed, and the animal is placed in the heated portion of a paper towel-lined plastic rodent cage, which is partially heated to allow the animal to move to the temperature that is most comfortable.