Parapharyngeal Hypophysectomy (HYPOX)

Available in: Rats Anesthetics Analgesic
Pre-Operative Procedures Intra-Operative Care Post-Operative Care

Surgical Preparation

The animal is anesthetized. Sterile eye lubricant is placed in both eyes, and the throat is surgically prepared. A small, longitudinal incision is made just posterior to the chin papilla. An endo-tracheal tube is inserted to facilitate breathing during the procedure. The animal is placed in dorsal recumbency on a surgery board fitted with a sterile board drape. Analgesic is administered.

Surgical Description

To expose the pituitary, the sternohyoideus muscle is bisected at the midline, and the sides of the muscle are separated and retracted. The cranium is dissected, and a chisel is used to remove attached muscles, exposing the cranial floor. The pituitary lies between the basisphenoid and occipital plates. A drill is used to puncture the bone and expose the dura mater. The dura mater is incised to expose the pituitary gland. Suction is necessary to remove the pituitary gland and surrounding bone fragments. Excess bleeding is controlled by placing a small piece of sterile gel foam in the now empty cavity.

Surgical Closing

The tracheal tube is removed with suction to evacuate accumulated tracheal fluid. The incision along the throat is closed with approved closing materials (suture or stainless steel clips), and the surgery sites are treated with an approved disinfectant followed by an alcohol swabbing.


A standard sham hypox model is prepared as described above with regards to surgical site preparation, insertion of the tracheal tube, dissection of the throat, retraction of the sternohyoideus muscle, suction of the tracheal tube and surgical site disinfection; however, no tissue is removed.